At all times Math is fun there were children who had a hard time growing up without parents. It is well known that it is these children who are lagging behind in their development, who have deep emotional disorders, and who are more likely to be ill and die. Syndrome of hospitalism is expressed by slowing development, difficulty in adapting children to the environment and society, loss of interest in working life, low resistance to infectious agents and a propensity to chronize pathological processes in the body, in addition to high mortality among children.
This fact is confirmed by the saying of the Spanish Bishop: “In the orphanage the child becomes sad and many die of sadness. Children brought up in an orphanage do not feel that they are a part of society, and this makes it difficult for their further integration into society. In children with deprivation, there is a lack of ability to love and difficulties in interacting with the other sex. The spiritual traumas a child has experienced are compensated for by aggressive manifestations that are directed outside (on others) and towards themselves (autoaggression). The reason for differentiation between orphans and children from ordinary families has always been relevant, and many generations have sought to understand such differentiation.
At first, it was believed that the reason for differentiation was poverty, poor shelter conditions, and bad food. When this reason was eliminated: new, clean math is fun games orphanages were created in which all hygienic requirements were met and the necessary care and medical care was guaranteed – the condition of the children practically did not change, and in some cases it even got worse. Another reason for the difficult condition of a child in an orphanage was considered impoverished (impoverish) environment: a monotonous environment, a small number of toys, poverty of impressions. But, the resolution of the information environment problem did not change the situation either. The most important breakthrough of psychological science in the middle of XX century was the justification by D. Bowlby, R. Spitz of the indisputable importance for the harmonious development of the child of maternal care. Attraction of public attention to the problem became possible thanks to specialists who themselves were shocked by the condition of children who were without maternal care even for a relatively short time. Only by the middle of XX century it became scientifically proved and generally accepted that the presence of body and persistent positive emotional ties with the mother is the most important condition for the harmonious development of a young child. The condition caused by the lack of such connections became known as “maternal depriviatin”. Deprivation is nowadays a widely used term in psychology, medicine and social pedagogy. Translated from English, it means “loss, deprivation, long-term limitation of the ability to meet vital needs. Going deeper into the problem of development of deprived orphans in state children’s organizations, there are two opposing points of view. On the one hand, even today there is an idea that children in orphanages are no different from their peers growing up in families, and all the problems of orphans can be solved by improving their financial position, attracting the attention of sponsors and charitable organizations, and creating optimal conditions for education and upbringing. On the other hand, there is a widespread belief that there are almost no healthy children left in orphanages and boarding schools, and that all of the children have mental and physical disabilities that are due to their unfavorable inheritance.
By and large, both are true. There are not a few cases when graduates from the best orphanages and boarding schools quite successfully enter adulthood and adapt: they study, work, start families, raise children, and remember their time in the boarding school with special warmth. However, there is another side of the coin. The results of research conducted in many countries around the world show that outside of the family, a child develops a special trajectory, and has specific character traits, behaviors, personality traits that can not be said about whether they are worse or better than the average child – they are just different. And, moreover, there is every reason to believe that the psychological factor directly causes the deviations of such children: both psychological and somatic. Each type of deprivation does not exist independently; it can be identified only in special applied research.