There are many programming languages, and each of them has its own tasks and scope. We tell you what a programmer should know and how to learn such a specialist from scratch and on your own.
I want to be a programmer. What kind of knowledge are you sure you can’t do without?
Any programmer needs to know English and mathematics. All important documentation and quality courses are published in English. Knowledge of mathematics is not required so categorically. But confident mastery of mathematics provides a clear understanding of the code being created, awareness of every step and allows you to estimate the efficiency of algorithms in your head.
How to choose a suitable programming language?
There are over 300 programming languages, but for a successful career you can choose from among the ten most popular ones. It is even more correct to first determine the area in which you are going to work, and only then proceed to the choice of language.
One of the best languages for beginners is Python. This popular general-purpose language is good for laconicism and simplicity of syntax, it is actively used in IT-companies in Russia and worldwide.
Other popular languages are Java and C. They are more complex, especially for beginners, but mastering them provides a better understanding of what you do and what happens to your program. Together with Pascal, C is usually studied at university in specialized faculties.
The use of other programming languages depends on the purpose of the activity. For example, php, Java, ruby are popular as server languages. Of client languages, Java Script is the most promising. For development of complex highly loaded projects C++ is required. Games are written in the same language. Another promising area – application development for mobile devices. Here they use Java, Objective-C, Swift. Any experienced programmer knows several languages, but he writes code in only one of them at work.
I want to make websites. Which programming languages should I choose?
Evgeniy Kucheryavy, the author of the blog of online university SkillBox, told us what web developers do and what languages they definitely need to know.
Such a developer by definition is on the “front line” and is responsible for the visual component of the site: the way it sees the visitor. Frontend-developers make sure that all the graphic elements worked properly, the content was displayed on all devices, fonts are not “crawling”, and pictures are not loaded too long.
1) HTML training
First of all, a novice front-end developer should master HTML – the language of hypertext markup. It is a basic tool that allows you to put all the basic elements on the page, be it photos, tables or text.
- CSS training
Externally written in HTML the web page will resemble a simple text document. To “revive” it, a cascading style sheet or CSS is used. It does not change the structure of the page, but its appearance: fonts, arrangement of elements, shadows and colors. In other words, if HTML is used to describe the logical structure of a page, CSS is responsible for graphic elements and is written in a separate file.
Yesterday’s technique is tomorrow: can programming languages become obsolete?
Beautiful shell of the site makes no sense without stuffing: videos, hyperlinks and pictures should be linked to the server, database, with other Internet sites. Hardware and software work of the service is taken over by back-end developers. They are also responsible for information security (protection against hackers) and monitor the load on the server (so that the page does not “hang” because of the influx of visitors).
- PHP training
The basic tool of the backend developer – programming language PHP. It is needed to link a visible user page with the server, where any data are stored. For example, in order not to put one photo on the website using HTML, you can run a script that automatically uploads there a conditional gallery, lying on the server. The PHP language makes it so much easier to create a website that SkillBox recommends it to front-end developers.
- SQL learning
The SQL abbreviation stands for “structured query language”. Unlike PHP, which is needed to connect the site to the server, SQL languages allow you to manage the database itself. Now there are many such languages, the most common of which are MySQL, MSSQL, PostgreSQL and others.
Developers of “full cycle” perfectly know the languages needed for both front-end and back-end programming. They are universal experts, although, obviously, the depth of their immersion in a particular area of web development is inferior to the awareness of narrow specialists.
And what other programmers are there?
1C-programmer, whose immediate tasks include optimization of the finished system 1C and its adjustment directly under each enterprise.
Programming engineer, who is most often engaged in software development for industrial automation, he also usually programs household appliances.
Game Developer, which specializes in creating computer games. Game Developers are busy in the full life cycle of video games: creating, testing, refining, supporting, updating, modification, etc.
Android and iOS developers who create games, software, interfaces and updates for Apple-branded devices or Android devices.
A system programmer whose tasks, in addition to the development of software modules and their integration, include adaptation and modification of software products for a particular system, based on its logic and objectives. He can also develop databases and administer them.
The leading direction in the field of programming is considered to be the field of Data Science. It combines artificial intelligence and data, the ability to predict based on statistical data.
How to find and retain an IT specialist.
Where to go to learn to be a programmer?
If there is an opportunity to enter a university, it is better to choose one of the leading universities: MSU, MIFI, Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg State University, MIPT, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, MAI, ITMO, etc. Naturally, we are talking about the profile faculties. Graduates of these universities are the leaders in the rating of Superjob portal, which is based on the level of starting salaries of programmers.
Is it possible to learn programming in online courses?
Elementary programming skills will help you acquire popular platforms such as Codecademy, Skillbox, GeekBrains, HTML Academy. After taking such courses it becomes easier for a person to understand which direction to go in professional development.
Free courses are often opened and sponsored by major Russian companies: Mail.Ru Group, Yandex, Kaspersky Lab, Sberbank, Tinkoff Bank, 2GIS, Rusnano, Skolkovo and HeadHunter.
Many leading world universities are opening courses online. For example, MIT courses can be found on the Coursera platform.
And here: a selection of free online courses on programming from leading US universities.
How do I learn programming on my own?
Mastering programming by 80% implies independent work. Almost all necessary materials are available on the Internet. The most important thing: motivation. It is best to approach the study in a complex way, for example, by combining online courses, official documentation of languages, lectures, articles, books. At the same time, you should not extend to several languages at once, it is better to start with the simplest ones.
You can learn by playing: some training sites are games themselves, for example, Code Combat and CodinGame.
At GitHub, you can find a huge collection of free programming books. Also available is a collection of eBooks covering 24 programming languages.
There are also many people in the programming community who are willing to help the next generation of programmers. Hack.pledge is a site to help you find a mentor.
In addition, you can subscribe to thematic channels in Telegram, for example: the Python Beginner Channel, the web and Java Script community, the Ruby and Ruby on Rails developer channel and others.
In programming, the principle “practice is more important than theory” is relevant. It is not possible to learn a lot of information about languages at once, so it is much better to spend more time honing your skills.
Do I need a diploma in programming for a successful career?
It is considered that high engineering or research positions without higher education are unattainable. A diploma is also needed for those professionals who want to work abroad. At the same time, many Russian HR-specialists say that when hiring, they mainly look not at the line “education” in the programmer’s resume, but at real work experience. In addition, before or during the interview, the candidate will most likely be offered a test job.